With my travel schedule, I missed the (late) release of the 2017 National Preparedness Report (NPR) in mid-October. Foundationally, the findings of the 2017 report show little change from the 2016 report. If you are interested in comparing, you can find my review of the 2016 NPR here.
The 2017 NPR, on the positive side, provided more data and more meaningful data than its predecessor. It appeared to me there was more time and effort spent in analysis of this data. If you aren’t familiar with the premise of the NPR, the report is a compilation of data obtained from State Preparedness Reports (SPRs) submitted by states, territories, and UASI-funded regions; so the NPR, fundamentally, should be a reflection of what was submitted by these jurisdictions and regions – for the better or worse of it. The SPR asks jurisdictions to provide an honest analysis of each of the core capabilities through the POETE capability elements (Planning, Organizing, Equipping, Training, and Exercising).
From the perspective of the jurisdictions, no one wants to look bad. Not to say that any jurisdiction has lied, but certainly agendas can sway subjective assessments. Jurisdictions want to show that grant money is being spent effectively (with the hopes of obtaining more), but not with such terrific results that anyone would think they don’t need more. Over the past few years the SPRs, I believe, have started to normalize and better reflect reality. I think the authors of the NPR have also come to look at the data they receive a little more carefully and word the NPR to reflect this reality.
The 2017 NPR (which evaluates 2016 data from jurisdictions) identified five core capabilities the nation needs to sustain. These are:
- Environmental Response/Health and Safety
- Intelligence and Information Sharing
- Operational Communications
- Operational Coordination
I’m reasonably comfortable with the first two, although they both deal with hazards and details that change regularly, so keeping on top of them is critical. Its interesting that Operational Communication is rated so high, yet is so commonly seen as a top area for improvement on after-action reports of exercises, events, and incidents. To me, the evidence doesn’t support the conclusion in regard to this core capability. Operational Coordination and Planning both give me some significant concern.
First, in regard to Operational Coordination, I continue to have a great deal of concern in the ability of responders (in the broadest definitions) to effectively implement the Incident Command System (ICS). While the implementation of ICS doesn’t comprise all of this core capability, it certainly is a great deal of it. I think there is more room for improvement than the NPR would indicate. For example, in a recent exercise I supported, the local emergency manager determined there would be a unified command with him holding ‘overall command’. Unfortunately, these false interpretations of ICS are endemic.
I believe the Planning core capability is in a similar state inadequacy. Preparedness lies, fundamentally, on proper planning and the assessments that support it. While I’ve pontificated at length about the inadequacy of ICS training, I’ve seen far too many plans with gaps that you could drive a truck through. I’ve recently exercised a college emergency response plan that provided no details or guidance on critical tasks, such as evacuation of a dormitory and support of the evacuated students. The plan did a great job of identifying who should be in the EOC, but gave no information on what they should be doing or how they should do it. The lack of plans that can be operationalized and implemented is staggering.
The NPR identified the top core capabilities to be improved. There are no surprises in this list:
- Economic Recovery
- Infrastructure Systems
- Natural and Cultural Resources
- Supply Chain Integrity and Security
Fortunately, I’m seeing some (but not all) of these core capabilities getting some needed attention, but clearly not enough. These don’t have simple solutions, so they will take some time.
Page 10 of the NPR provides a graph showing the distribution of FEMA preparedness (non-disaster) grants by core capability for fiscal year 2015. Planning (approx. $350m) and Operational Coordination (approx. $280m) lead the pack by far. I’m curious as to what specific activities these dollars are actually being spent on, because my experience shows that it’s not working as well as is being reported. Certainly there has been some positive direction, but I’m guessing that dollars are being spent on activities that either have negligible impact or actually have a negative impact, such as funding the development of some of the bad plans we’re seeing out there.
I’m curious as to what readers are seeing out in real life. What capabilities concern you the most? What capabilities do you see successes in? Overall, I think everyone agrees that we can do better. We can also get better and more meaningful reports. This NPR was a step in the right direction from last year’s, but we need to continue forward progress.
© 2017 – Timothy Riecker, CEDP